The dawn of the 19 century marked the end of the Newtonian era and the infallible “Classical mechanics” when in the year 1905 a patent clerk named Albert Einstein published his three groundbreaking research papers which transformed the way we thought about the universe. Before the theory scientists believed space and time to be different entities and thought that the laws of reference frame (as described by classical mechanics) were nearly ubiquitous both in its accuracy and applicability, a conclusion that lasted a brief time till the experimental results proved the major fallout deviating from the theoretical ones.
Einstein’s classification of the theory of relativity was broadly divided into two parts-The special and the general theory of relativity. According to the special theory of relativity the speed of the particle is independent of the reference of the frame chosen thereafter, this can be understood with a basic example of two trains A and B speculated in the vicinity with a fixed frame reference attached to any one of the trains, their motions correlated and the perceptions of the two observers sitting on either of the two trains correlated. It can be inferred that the relative speed of the train comes out to be almost twice for two trains moving with the same speed towards each other. However, if we were to view the entire scenario in the context of the speed of light, an estimation involving twice the speed of light is clearly an ambiguous and absurd result and seems to violate the laws of general relativity as given by Einstein. These interesting deductions further gave rise to a new phenomenon “time dilation” formulated by Einstein on the basis of the famous researches conducted on space-time by H. A Lorentz and described in his three famous equations “the Lorentz transformation”. The theory was further supported through Similar results achieved using length contraction and the mass-energy relationship.
As of today the universe contains numerous structures. There are several effects of these structures on the universe. For e. g. if there was a huge mass of an object having a size as big as a planet and a dominion of remarkable intergalactic boundaries. This colossal nature will cause a change in the curvature of space-time (generally the curvature of space-time is flat because of the inflation of the universe. Nevertheless, this one is the separate field) leading to excessive curvature of space-time fabric and consequently, slowing down of the speed of time. Day-to-day examples include one nanosecond time dilation in the GPS systems as compared to the clocks on earth, black hole- a super condensed, compacted mass of infinite matter with its dimensions approaching singularity, will tend to have more effect on time due to its significant effect on the fabric of space-time. The theory of general relativity repudiates the presence of any such force like gravity and views it as the natural motion of an object between geodesics in space and time
If something doesn’t fall (for example if it is resting on a table), it is being accelerated away from It’s natural motion by the compression of the tabletop beneath it. This force from the table is the only real force present. There is no such thing as a gravitational force. Massive things are heavier because the table needs to apply a bigger force to accelerate them away from their natural motion. Thus gravity turns out to be a fictitious force like centrifugal force. We feel a centrifugal force when a car goes around a corner, but in reality our body is just trying to follow its natural motion (a straight line) and the car has to push us sideways. Similarly, we feel gravity pulling us downwards, but all that’s really happening is the ground, pushing us upwards against our natural motion. This natural motion is called the Geodesic and draws its major impact from Relativity.